A hydraulic cylinder serves as a mechanical device. It transforms hydraulic energy into linear force and motion. Operates on the principle of fluid pressure to generate force in a confined space. It comprises of components which includes cylindrical barrel, piston, and hydraulic fluid. These components work together to facilitate various mechanical applications.

The cylinder consists of a piston that moves back and forth within the barrel. When hydraulic fluid is pressurized and directed into one side of the cylinder, it pushes against the piston. This causes it to move in a specific direction. This movement generates force and linear motion . This includes lifting heavy loads, moving machinery components, or controlling the movement of equipment in various industries.

Overall, hydraulic cylinders play a pivotal role in converting hydraulic energy into mechanical force. They enable controlled and powerful movement in diverse industrial and commercial settings.


Pascal’s Law Basis: Hydraulic cylinders operate on Pascal’s Law. The law states that pressure transmitted through a confined fluid is equal in all directions within the fluid.

Components: They consist of a cylinder barrel and a piston. The piston is inside the cylinder barrel.

Hydraulic Fluid Input: When hydraulic fluid creates pressure against the piston.

Pressure Transmission: The pressure generated by the fluid transmits equally throughout the confined fluid in the cylinder.

Force Generation: This transmitted pressure acts on the larger surface area of the piston. This produces a larger force output on the other side of the cylinder.

Controlled Motion: The movement and force of the piston can be precisely controlled by regulating the amount of fluid and pressure applied.

Functional Outcome: Hydraulic cylinders utilize this principle to produce powerful and controlled linear motion. This allows them to perform various tasks in different industries.


Cylinder Barrel: This is the main body of the cylinder. It is constructed from strong materials like steel or aluminium. It houses the other components and provides the structure for the cylinder assembly.

Piston: Inside the cylinder barrel, the piston is a crucial moving part. It is a cylindrical piece that fits precisely within the barrel, forming a tight seal. When hydraulic fluid is pressurized, it acts against the piston to generate force and movement.

Piston Rod: This rod is connected to the piston and extends outside the cylindrical barrel. It transmits the force generated by the piston to the external load or machinery. The piston rod needs to be robust and durable to withstand the forces exerted on it.

Seals and O-Rings:

These are essential for maintaining a tight seal between the piston and cylinder walls. Seals prevent fluid leakage and maintain hydraulic pressure within the cylinder. O-rings are commonly used due to their effectiveness in sealing and preventing leaks.

Hydraulic Fluid: The fluid used in the cylinder is a crucial element. Usually, it is hydraulic oil with specific properties to ensure smooth operation, lubrication, and efficient transfer of force. The choice of hydraulic fluid is essential for the overall performance and longevity of the cylinder.

Ports and Connections: Hydraulic cylinders have inlet and outlet ports for the hydraulic fluid to enter and exit the cylinder. These ports are connected to hoses or pipes that supply and return the fluid to and from a hydraulic pump or system.

End Caps or Heads: Caps or heads are positioned at either end of the cylinder barrel. They enclose the cylinder. Offer mounting points for the piston rod. They also contain ports for fluid entry and exit. These ports often have fittings and seals to ensure a secure connection.

Mounting and Fastening Components: To integrate the cylinder into a larger system or machinery, mounting brackets or fastening elements are utilized. These ensure the stable and secure attachment of the cylinder in its intended position.

Pressure Relief Valves: In some hydraulic cylinders, pressure relief valves are integrated to prevent overpressure situations. These valves help to maintain safe operating conditions by releasing excess pressure. It helps to safeguard the cylinder from potential damage.

Guides and Bearings: Some cylinders may include guides or bearings to support the piston rod’s movement, reducing friction and wear. These components guarantee smooth and stable operation. They are crucial, especially in applications with high loads. Also, they are vital in applications needing precise movement.


Single-Acting Hydraulic Cylinder: The cylinder has fluid pressure on one side of the piston. This creates force in one direction.

Double-Acting Hydraulic Cylinder: Double-acting cylinder has hydraulic pressure applied alternately on both sides of the piston. This enables force generation in both directions. It allows controlled movement in both extending and retracting strokes.

Telescopic Hydraulic Cylinder: Telescopic cylinders consist of multiple nested stages. It provides a longer stroke while maintaining a compact retracted length. These cylinders are commonly used in applications where a long stroke is required in limited space. Examples include dump trucks, cranes etc.

Differential Hydraulic Cylinder: Differential cylinders have different piston areas on each side. This causes unequal force output depending on the surface area exposed to hydraulic pressure. They provide variable force output and speed based on the design of the piston and cylinder sizes.

Tie-Rod Hydraulic Cylinder: Tie-rod cylinders have tie rods outside the cylinder barrel. These rods provide structural support, keeping the end caps, barrel, and other components tightly together.

Mill-Type Hydraulic Cylinder: Mill-type cylinders are robust and designed to handle high-pressure and high-force situations. Heavy-duty applications like steel mills and manufacturing plants.

Welded Hydraulic Cylinder: Welded cylinders are made by welding end caps to the barrel. They are compact and fit well in limited space applications. They offer good resistance to side loads and can be customized for various mounting options.


Hydraulic cylinders often fall under the broader category of machinery parts or components.

In the HSN system, machinery parts typically have codes falling within Chapter 84 (Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, and mechanical appliances) or Chapter 87 (Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock).

In many cases, the specific HSN code for a hydraulic cylinder might be like:

84122100: Hydraulic power engines and motors

84123100: Hydraulic cylinders

84129090: Other parts of hydraulic turbines and water wheels


The top 10 manufacturers of hydraulic cylinders in India are-

  • Zenith hydromatic
  • SANTECH Exim Pvt Ltd
  • Kangaroo Hydraulics Pvt Ltd
  • Spareage hydro
  • Swapnapoorti hydraulics
  • LEO Engineers
  • Jit Engineers
  • Vektra Engineering
  • Shivangi Hydraulics
  • Tandem Hydraulics Pvt Ltd

More details Here.


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