A pneumatic cylinder is a mechanical device that utilizes compressed air to generate linear motion or force.The cylinders consist of a cylindrical chamber with a piston inside.They convert compressed air energy into mechanical motion.

When air is supplied into the cylinder, it exerts pressure on the piston. This causes it to move along the cylinder’s axis.

This movement generates force, which can be utilized for various applications.

These include actuating valves, lifting loads, or powering machinery in industries like manufacturing, automation, and robotics.

Pneumatic cylinders offer advantages like simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and reliability in applications where controlled linear motion or force is required. Their versatility and ease of use make them integral components in a wide range of pneumatic systems across different industrial sectors.


A pneumatic cylinder is composed of several essential parts that work together to convert compressed air into mechanical force:

Cylinder Barrel:

This is the main body of the pneumatic cylinder, typically cylindrical in shape. It houses the other components and provides the structure for the cylinder.


Pistons are movable components embedded within the barrel of the cylinder. It separates the cylinder into two chambers. It converts the energy from compressed air into mechanical motion. The piston’s movement generates the force necessary for the cylinder’s operation.

Rod and Rod Seal:

The rod, connected to the piston, extends through one end of the cylinder barrel. It transmits the force created by the piston’s movement to perform external work.

The rod seal ensures that air does not leak between the rod and the cylinder. This helps in maintaining efficient operation.

End Caps or Covers:

These components enclose the cylinder barrel at each end. They provide sealing and attachment points for the cylinder within a pneumatic system. End caps house ports for air inlet and exhaust and contain mounting holes for installation.

Ports and Valves:

The cylinder features ports for air inlet and exhaust. Valves manage airflow in and out of the cylinder, regulating both pressure and the piston’s movement direction. These valves are crucial for the precise control of the cylinder’s motion.


 Certain pneumatic cylinders feature cushions at the ends of the cylinder barrel. These cushions lessen impact and noise when the piston reaches its stroke’s end. Cushions absorb energy, preventing abrupt stops and minimizing wear on the cylinder components.

Guides and Bearings: In certain pneumatic cylinders, guides and bearings support the piston rod, ensuring smooth and precise movement. They help prevent lateral movement or misalignment of the rod. This enhances the cylinder’s performance and longevity.

Understanding these parts and their functions is essential for assembling, maintaining, and operating pneumatic cylinders effectively in various industrial applications


Air Compression:

Pneumatic systems rely on air compressors to pressurize atmospheric air.

Compressors increases air pressure, and store the compressed air in reservoirs or tanks.

This pressurized air becomes the energy source for pneumatic devices, including cylinders. This is regulated through control valves.

Pressure Supply:

Compressed air is directed into the pneumatic cylinder through an inlet port.

As it enters, it pressurizes one chamber within the cylinder.

This action creates a pressure differential between the two sides of the piston within the cylinder.

Piston Movement:

The higher-pressure side of the piston experiences the force exerted by the compressed air.

This force initiates movement, pushing the piston towards the side with lower pressure.

The ability of the piston to move is a result of the pressure imbalance within the cylinder.

Linear Motion:

The movement of the piston generates linear motion.

This is transmit through the rod from the piston.

This motion is perform external work or actuate mechanisms.

These mechanisms are controlling valves, lifting loads, or operating machinery in industrial settings.


Simultaneously, as the piston moves, it compresses the air in the opposing chamber.

To maintain equilibrium and allow smooth movement, an exhaust port is there.

This port enables the compressed air from the opposite side of the piston to escape or return to the pneumatic system.

Return Stroke:

When the pressure on one side of the piston decreases, external forces or springs come into play.

These forces facilitate the return stroke, causing the piston to retract to its original position.

This action resets the cylinder for the next operation or movement cycle.

Thereby, the pneumatic cylinder completes its working cycle.


The Harmonized System of Nomenclature (HSN) code for pneumatic cylinders in India is 84123100.

This six-digit code falls under Chapter 84 of the HSN code system, which covers nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, and mechanical appliances, among other things.

The code 84123100 specifically refers to pneumatic power engines and motors, linear acting (cylinders).


Some manufacturers of Pneumatic Cylinder in India are:

Mercury Pneumatics Pvt. Ltd.

Nishaka Pneumatics

Hydro-Pneumatic controls

Hydraulic & Pneumatic products


Mehta Hydraulics Equipments LLP

Proline Industrial Valves

Jyoti Hydraulic

More details here.


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